Thursday, 1 December 2022

PM — Thin is in again

TL;DR

WHAT WE’RE TRACKING TONIGHT

Good afternoon, folks. Only five sleeps separate us from meeting with all you good folks at the Enterprise Climate X Forum at the Grand Egyptian Museum on Tuesday, 6 December. More on that below.

THE BIG STORY TODAY

Gov’t to award contracts for first USD 3 bn phase of desalination program next year -SFE’s Soliman: Contracts to build out the first 21 desalination plants under the first phase of the Sisi administration’s multi-bn water desalination program will be awarded next year, Sovereign Fund of Egypt CEO Ayman Soliman said at a conference today, according to Reuters. Soliman put the value of the first phase of the program at USD 3 bn, saying that the full program’s price tag is expected at some USD 8 bn. The first phase of the program has already drawn interest from north of 200 potential international investors, he said.

The program will include several plants in locations on Egypt’s Red Sea and Mediterranean coasts to help give us sufficient water to keep up with population growth over the next 50 years, President Abdel Fattah El Sisi said at a separate event today (watch, runtime: 2:51).

THE BIG STORY ABROAD

It’s a mixed bag in the international business press this afternoon. The EU is reportedly planning to set its price cap on imported Russian oil at USD 60 per barrel, the Wall Street Journal reports. Meanwhile, Reuters and the Financial Times are leading with expectations that China is going to finally begin easing some of its covid-19 precautionary measures, while CNBC’s top story is Ukraine being on “high alert” as Russia launches fresh attacks.

RIP- Fleetwood Mac singer Christine McVie has passed away at the age of 79 following a bout of bad health. McVie was widely known for her extraordinary performance inthe prominent British-American rock band. Her most notable songs include “When the Train Comes Back” released in 1968 and “Spare Me a Little of Your Love” written and sung by her in 1972. The New York Times is out with an obit.


** CATCH UP QUICK on the top stories from today’s EnterpriseAM:

  • HSBC’s Todd Wilcox on why EV manufacturing should be an FDI focus: After reading our five-step recipe for turning Egypt into a global export hub and FDI magnet, HSBC’s Todd Wilcox tells us why he thinks we should focus on drawing in FDI to locally manufacture EVs.
  • Dozens of multinational firms agree to invest in our outsourcing industry: 29 global firms will up their investments in our outsourcing industry under agreements inked with the CIT Ministry’s Information Technology Industry Development Agency.
  • State ownership policy gets final nod from cabinet: The cabinet yesterday approved the final draft of the Madbouly government’s state ownership policy document, following amendments made after months of consultations with public and private-sector stakeholders.

🗓 CIRCLE YOUR CALENDAR-

French luxury fashion house Dior is hosting its men’s pre-fall collection show against the backdrop of the Giza Pyramids on Saturday. The show will mark the first time Dior brings its traveling men’s pre-fall collection shows to Egypt.

Check out our full calendar on the web for a comprehensive listing of upcoming news events, national holidays and news triggers.

☀️ THIS WEEKEND’S WEATHER- Look for the beautiful late-fall weather to continue through the weekend in Cairo (a high of 24°C during the day), Alex (23°C) and Hurghada (26°C). Expect largely sunny skies with the occasional cloud in all three cities.

enterprise

FOR YOUR COMMUTE

Is TikTok responsible for a viral “blackout” challenge that has led to children’s deaths? Visual social media platform TikTok has recently been playing host to the viral “blackout challenge,” in which users choke themselves until they faint and then get an adrenaline rush as they come to — all on camera, according to Bloomberg. The (obviously) dangerous “challenge” has resulted in 15 children aged 12 or below dying as they tried to partake, but appeared unaware of the dangers.

These cases have raised questions about the extent to which TikTok itself should be held accountable. Although TikTok was initially unaware of several incidents of children’s deaths from the “blackout challenge,” the company has known that children below the age of 13 — its minimum age requirement — have been using the app. A big part of the problem is that kids are claiming to be older than 13 to create adult TikTok profiles, as the platform simply sets the age requirement but has long lacked a meaningful way to verify the information. TikTok has since met with facial age-estimation programs that are able to differentiate between teenagers and kids with relative accuracy but has not signed any agreements and has refused to comment as to why but said that it removes underage kids’ accounts, removing 41 mn accounts in the first half of 2022. Twitter, BeReal and Instagram have since begun utilizing these platforms.


We’re closer than ever to a real-life Black Mirror episode: Brain-chip startup Neuralink expects to begin human trials on its brain computer-interface product within six months, pending approvals from the US FDA, CEO Elon Musk said at a “show and tell” event yesterday (watch, runtime: 2:48:32). The product would essentially “allow a person with a debilitating condition … to communicate via their thoughts,” Bloomberg notes. Neuralink had showcased its technology last year by embedding the chips in monkeys’ brains, allowing them to play video games just by thinking about the physical motions of the game.

The company is also working on two separate products that could help restore physical mobility or other human body functions lost to disease, including correcting spinal mobility for people with paralysis, and using an eye implant to restore lost human vision — even if it was never there. This technology is designed to eventually help people with degenerative and paralytic illnesses by sending brain signals between the chips implanted in the body, much like the brain’s regular neural signaling pathways, according to CNN.

enterprise

Our friends at Etisalat by e& are joining us for the Enterprise Climate X Forum, taking place at the Grand Egyptian Museum. Are you? Our first-ever large-scale event, with more than 200 C-suite execs, bankers, investors, DFI folks wouldn’t have been possible without the support of good friends who are committed to the message of the conference, including Etisalat, HSBC, Mashreq, Attijariwafa Bank, Hassan Allam Utilities, and Infinity.

You should see the lineup of speakers and topics we have in store: Among the top execs, bankers, and development finance folks speaking at the conference are: Amr Allam, co-CEO of Hassan Allam Holding; Todd Wilcox, CEO and deputy chair at HSBC Egypt; Mohamed Ismail Mansour, co-founder and CEO of Infinity; Tarek El Nahas, group head of international banking at Mashreq; Nader Abushadi, group treasurer at Dar Group; Sherif El Kholy, partner and head of MENA at Actis; Khalid Hamza, director and head of Egypt at European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), Simon Kitchen, head of strategy at EFG Hermes Research; Karim Hussein, managing partner at Algebra Ventures; Aly El Tayeb, CEO and co-founder of ShiftEV; Jorgo Chatzimarkakis, CEO of Hydrogen Europe; Khaled Naguib, CEO of H2Egypt, and Leslie Reed, Mission director for Egypt, USAID.

Topics and live interviews will include:

  • What are green hydrogen and NWFE? Why do they matter to businesses, banks and investors?
  • How are CEOs across global emerging markets dealing with (and being constrained by) climate change?
  • What’s keeping bankers awake at night when it comes to climate finance?
  • Meet the startup and VC in line to be Egypt’s first climate b’naires.

You can tap or click here to see the full agenda.

** Have you confirmed your attendance? We’ll be sending you on Sunday, 4 December the QR code you’ll need to gain admission to the Grand Egyptian Museum, along with a Google Maps link and some other pointers — including a reminder that the event takes place under Chatham House Rules. Only confirmed invitees who can present their personal QR codes will be able to gain admission to the GEM on event day.

ENTERPRISE RECOMMENDS

📺 ON THE TUBE TONIGHT-
(all times CLT)

Blood & Water is back with a new season. This time around, the Netflix drama crime-mystery show, taking place at Parkhurst High — a South African school in Cape Town — follows a teen girl named Ama Qamata as she looks for her abducted mother, opening cans of worms and revealing dark secrets along the way. Ama believes her mother was taken by a trafficking ring, while Josephine Bradley, the lead detective on the case, calls it a high profile homicide.

The group stage of the World Cup wraps up this weekend, with the knockout stage set to kick off on Saturday. The Egyptian league also has a few matches to keep an eye on over the weekend.

It’s going to be a few days of nail-biting for the final breath of the World Cup group stage: We’re watching to see what happens today for Group E (all options are on the table) and Group F (our hearts are with Morocco), before directing our attention tomorrow to the outcomes for Group G (a clash of three titans) and Group H (an epic showdown between Ghana and Uruguay).

Group E- Germany heads into its decisive match against Costa Rica at 9pm today, at the same time as Spain and Japan hit the field. German hearts are hanging in the balance for the country’s last chance to proceed in the tournament, after the national team put itself in a bind by losing to Japan and drawing with Spain. Now, Germany’s fate is somewhat out of its hands — it must win against Costa Rica, but Japan must also lose against Spain to allow the Germans to move onto the knockout stage. Spain has already secured its spot in the round of 16, regardless of the outcome of Costa Rica’s showdown with Germany.

P

W

D

L

GD

Points

🇪🇸 Spain

2

1

1

0

7

4

🇯🇵 Japan

2

1

0

1

0

3

🇨🇷 Costa Rica

2

1

0

1

-6

3

🇩🇪 Germany

2

0

1

1

-1

1

Group F- Morocco’s face off against Canada begins at 5pm, with the North African team looking for a victory and nothing but, in order to ensure its qualification to the knockouts, without having to rely on any other outcomes. At the same time, Belgium and Croatia kick off their match. Canada has already lost out on its chance to qualify, but the rest of the group still have a fighting chance.

P

W

D

L

GD

Points

🇭🇷 Croatia

2

1

1

0

3

4

🇲🇦 Morocco

2

1

1

0

2

4

🇧🇪 Belgium

2

1

0

1

-1

3

🇨🇦 Canada

2

0

0

2

-4

0

Group G- Brazil, which has already secured a spot in the round of 16, will play Cameroon at 9pm tomorrow, while Switzerland and Serbia face off. Brazil needs just one point (meaning a win or a draw will be enough) to secure its lead in the group. Meanwhile, Cameroon is looking for a much-needed victory and is hoping for a gift from the Serbia v Switzerland match in order to qualify. It’s a tight race in this group — the possibility of a team qualifying on goal differential or yellow cards is still very much alive.

P

W

D

L

GD

T

🇧🇷 Brazil

2

2

0

0

3

6

🇨🇭 Switzerland

2

1

0

1

0

3

🇨🇲 Cameroon

2

0

1

1

-1

1

🇷🇸 Serbia

2

0

1

1

-2

1

Group H- Ghana v Uruguay kicks off at 5pm tomorrow, at the same time as Portugal v South Korea. Ghana’s showdown with Uruguay will bring back bitter memories of the 2010 World Cup in South Africa, when Uruguayan striker Luis Suarez blocked a would-be goal for Ghana with an infamous handball — blocking with it Ghana’s hopes of advancing to the 2010 championship’s semi-final match. A draw would be enough to allow Ghana to move on to the next stage this year, but there are other accounts to be settled.

P

W

D

L

GD

T

🇵🇹 Portugal

2

2

0

0

3

6

🇬🇭 Ghana

2

1

0

1

0

3

🇺🇾 Uruguay

1

0

1

1

-2

1

🇰🇷 South Korea

2

0

1

1

-1

1

Round of 16 matches on Saturday:

Netherlands v United States (5pm)

Argentina v Australia (9pm)

Egyptian Premier League:

Zamalek v Al Masry (7pm tonight)

Ismaily v Smouha (2:45pm Friday)

Al Mokawloon v Ceramica Cleopatra (2:45pm Friday)

Al Ahly v El Gaish (7pm Friday)

EAT THIS TONIGHT-

🍤 Gouna’s charming Vietnamese restaurant Saigon has landed in Park Street: The authentic Vietnamese restaurant offers the same delicious flavors in its new branch in the Sheikh Zayed hotspot. Start out your meal with the refreshing summer rolls — which are filled with prawns, rice noodles, lettuce, and fresh herbs — fried spring rolls or the Goi Ga (chicken cabbage salad). As we finally get a taste of winter weather, now would be a great time to try out one of their various soups. The menu boasts a wide selection of seafood, chicken, vegetarian and meat mains from Caramel Ginger Chicken — our personal favorite — to Duck Curry, making it quite daunting to narrow the options down.

Pro tips: Head there with a group of friends so you can order a few dishes to share and get to try a bit of everything. Don’t forget to order a side of rice or noodles — or both. We don't judge.

🎤 OUT AND ABOUT-
(all times CLT)

Don’t miss out on The Glass Onion playing a Beatles tribute tonight at The Tap East at 9pm.

All Saints’ Cathedral, one of Cairo’s most prominent churches, is hosting a Christmas Bazaar tomorrow in Zamalek from 10:30am to 4pm.

Make sure to wear your dancing shoes tonight at Cairo Jazz Club in Agouza as you dance the night away to some of Pink Seasalt’s memphis records at 9pm.

👂 EARS TO THE GROUND-

The Motherbeing Podcast gets into the uncomfortable truths of women’s general + reproductive health: Motherbeing, a platform dedicated to women’s empowerment and women’s health education, has grown from its initial home on Instagram to the podcast world. Hosted by Motherbeing founder Nour Emam, the podcast follows the platform’s ethos of getting into sometimes taboo issues related to women and reproductive health, tackling sensitive topics, including fertility, infertility, loss, personal hygiene, and motherhood. It’s not for the faint-hearted, but one of our favorite episodes is the last one of season 1, Fear of Birth, which digs deep into the “truth of birth” and what to expect in the process.

💡 UNDER THE LAMPLIGHT-

Delving into mental illness: When she was 6 years old, Rachel Aviv refused to eat. Her family had observed the fast for Yom Kippur a week prior, where she was introduced to the concept of fasting. She had to be checked into the anorexia unit of the Children’s Hospital of Michigan, making her case the earliest recorded onset of the disease in the US. In her debut novel Rachel Aviv describes her brief stint with anorexia, as she promptly began eating again and was checked out of the hospital two weeks later. In her book, Strangers to Ourselves — named one of the New York Times’ 10 Best Books of 2022— Aviv questions “whatever basic feelings existed in me before they were called anorexia” and how the diagnosis that doctors gave her despite not knowing why she refused to eat came to define her experience in terms other than her own.

Aviv explores four other people’s experiences with mental health: Naomi, whose experiences with racism seeped into her psyche, leading her to believe she was being persecuted by the government and eventually throwing her two one-year-olds into a river. She is currently behind bars for second-degree murder. Then there’s Ray, who sued a mental facility that relies on the psychoanalytic method for failing to improve his condition; Laura, a Harvard student and varsity squash player that has been taking mind-altering substances since school and is not sure who she is without them; and Bapu, a mother who left her family to live life as a mystic.

enterprise

GO WITH THE FLOW

The EGX30 rose 2.87% at today’s close on turnover of EGP 2.74 bn. Local investors were net buyers. The index is up 14.2% YTD.

In the green: EKH – EGP (+10.1%), AMOC (+9.7%) and Ezz Steel (+6.6%).

In the red: Cleopatra Hospitals (-3.3%), Ibnsina Pharma (-0.6%) and Talaat Moustafa Group (-0.5%).

FASHION

The return of the 90s “Heroin Chic” body trend: Although it's difficult to pinpoint when exactly skinniness became in vogue — or if it was ever truly out of vogue — all signs point to the reemergence of being extremely skinny as the most “fashionable” body size. The term heroin chic was coined in the 90s by the media to describe and glorify women who were “painfully thin and sickly looking, as if they were nearly dying of a [substance] addiction,” activist and actress Jameela Jamil explains in a Paper Magazine piece.

The smoking gun: Celebrities who previously boasted “curvy” figures but have now lost dramatic amounts of weight — like reality TV star and serial entrepreneur Kim Kardashian — are a key clue of the changing tides, the New York Post says in its aptly-titled article, “Bye-bye booty: heroin chic is back.” The Post also points to other data points like increasing demand for pilates courses, and the controversial weight-loss pill Ozempic constantly selling out as evidence of its re-emergence.

You can blame nostalgia: The trend’s comeback was heralded by the return of 90s and early 2000s fashion, with low rise jeans — which notoriously come hand-in-hand with expectations of a flat stomach — resurfacing on runways (after their demise for nearly two decades). High fashion brand Miu Miu, for example, used models with bare midriffs donning the “micro-mini” skirt (which it can be argued, more closely resembles a belt than a skirt) in its spring 2023 show in Milan. In order to fully comprehend the ramifications of this trend making a comeback it's important to note that “the return of size zero is bigger than fashion,” according to the Guardian.

So what is it really about? Flat stomachs, not the garments that dressed them, were the striking trend at recent runways, many argue. It’s more about the underlying message and the glorification of skinniness, which leads to a surge in unhealthy behaviors that are sometimes adopted as “necessary” to achieve the look.

Kardashian is getting a lot of heat for her role in perpetuating these ideas, especially as she “plays both sides”: Kardashian bragged about the restrictive diet that helped her lose 16 lb to fit into Marilyn Monroe’s dress for this year’s Met Gala echoing 90s eating disorder culture, the Guardian reports. There is an argument to be made that no single person has been as beneficial and as detrimental to the body positivity movement than Kardashian. When she first arrived on the scene in the late 2000s, she was credited with inspiring women to love and show off their curves with her voluptuous figure standing out in a sea of tall slim women on red carpets, according to The Cut. Then in a real blow to the body positivity movement, she began endorsing diet products including appetite suppressants and laxatives on Instagram making millions advertising the products to her followers, many of which are impressionable young women. She has since moved on to other ventures but still promotes stomach tightening treatments.

How big of a role did she actually play in the “size zero” trend’s resurgence? An article in The Cut has even argued that one specific 2018 beauty campaign Kardashian was in, in which she had clearly lost a considerable amount of weight, was the starting point of the “thin is in again” movement. A recent viral tweet also compares two photos of her from 2017 and 2022, with the side-by-side resembling the before-and-after comparisons that commonly frequented the tabloids in the mid 2000s, with voluptuous Kim on the left and skinny Kim on the right.

There are other people in the public eye who have also had an outsized impact: Model Kate Moss, who was once the poster girl for “heroin chic,” famously once stated “nothing tastes as good as skinny feels.” Millennials, many of whom were teenagers at the time, went to great lengths to make their bodies look like hers, including over-exercising, going on fad diets, and throwing up their food, according to Paper Magazine.

The odd data point that doesn’t quite fit in: The average size of runway models actually isn’t going down — at least not on paper. Out of 247 fashion shows this season, 90 included plus-size models, up from 62 the previous season, according to fashion search engine Tagwalk, The Guardian reports. Some 64% of labels continue to hire solely the classic slim body type on their runways but the trend is moving in the right direction. However, these figures do not differentiate between small designers and bigger more influential fashion brands, suggesting that skinnier models are likely being used by those with an outsized influence.

CALENDAR

NOVEMBER

20 November-18 December (Sunday-Sunday): 2022 Fifa World Cup, Qatar.

27-30 November (Sunday-Wednesday): Cairo ICT and Pafix, Egypt International Exhibition Center, New Cairo.

DECEMBER

1 December (Thursday): Sphinx International Airport will begin operating international flights.

1 December (Thursday): Contractors to break ground on Egypt-Saudi interconnection project.

1-3 December (Thursday-Saturday): BiznEX kicks off at Mamsha Ahl Misr.

3 December (Saturday): Dior Men’s pre-fall collection show in Giza.

4 December (Sunday): House back in session.

4 December (Sunday): OPEC+ meeting.

5-8 December (Monday-Thursday): QS Reimagine Education Awards and Conference, multiple locations.

5-7 December (Monday-Wednesday): Food Africa 2022 kicks off at Egypt International Exhibitions Center.

6 December (Tuesday): Enterprise Climate X Forum, Grand Egyptian Museum.

7 December (Wednesday): Euromoney Egypt 2022 conference

10 December (Saturday): The TriFactory’s Pyramids Half Marathon.

10-12 December (Saturday-Monday): The 2nd edition of the Nebu Expo for Gold and Jewelry kicks off.

13-14 December (Tuesday-Wednesday): Federal Reserve interest rate meeting.

13-15 December (Tuesday-Thursday): US-Africa Leaders Summit.

15 December (Thursday): European Central Bank monetary policy meeting.

20 December (Tuesday): EGX-listed Pachin will brief shareholders on offers received to acquire the company in an ordinary general assembly.

22 December (Thursday): Central Bank of Egypt’s Monetary Policy Committee meeting.

December: The Sixth of October dry port will begin operations.

December: Egyptian Automotive Summit.

December: Egypt to expand Sudan electricity link capacity to 300 MW.

December: Chinese President Xi Jinping visit to Saudi Arabia

JANUARY 2023

January: EGX-listed companies and non-bank lenders will submit ESG reports for the first time.

January: Fuel pricing committee meets to decide quarterly fuel prices.

January: Infinity + Africa Finance Corporation to close acquisition of Lekela Power.

1 January (Sunday): Use of Nafeza becomes compulsory for air freight.

1 January (Sunday): Residential electricity bills are set to rise as per the government’s six-year roadmap (pdf) to restructure electricity prices by 2025.

7 January (Saturday): Coptic Christmas.

24 January-6 February: The 54th Cairo International Book Fair, Egypt International Exhibition Center

25 January (Wednesday): 25 January revolution anniversary / Police Day.

26 January (Thursday): President El Sisi will visit India as “chief guest” at celebrations to mark the 74th anniversary of Indian independence.

26 January (Thursday): National holiday in observance of 25 January revolution anniversary / Police Day.

30 January-1 February (Monday-Wednesday): CI Capital’s Annual MENA Investor Conference 2023, Cairo, Egypt.

FEBRUARY 2023

11 February (Saturday): Second semester of 2022-2023 academic year begins for public universities.

13-15 February (Monday-Wednesday): The Egypt Petroleum Show (Egyps), Egypt International Exhibition Center, Cairo.

23-27 February (Thursday-Monday): Annual Business Women of Egypt’s Women for Success conference.

MARCH 2023

March: 4Q2022 earnings season.

23 March (Wednesday): First day of Ramadan (TBC). Maghreb will be at 6:08pm CLT.

APRIL 2023

1 April (Saturday): Deadline for banks to establish sustainability unit.

17 April (Monday): Sham El Nessim.

22 April (Saturday): Eid El Fitr (TBC).

25 April (Tuesday): Sinai Liberation Day.

27 April (Thursday): National holiday in observance of Sinai Liberation Day (TBC).

Late April – 15 May: 1Q2023 earnings season.

MAY 2023

1 May (Monday): Labor Day.

4 May (Thursday) National holiday in observance of Labor Day (TBC).

22-26 May (Monday-Friday): Egypt will host the African Development Bank (AfDB) annual meetings in Sharm El Sheikh.

JUNE 2023

19-21 June (Monday-Wednesday) Egypt Infrastructure and Water Expo debuts at the Egypt International Exhibition Center.

28 June-2 July (Wednesday-Sunday): Eid El Adha (TBC).

30 June (Friday): June 30 Revolution Day.

JULY 2023

18 July (Tuesday): Islamic New Year.

20 July (Thursday): National holiday in observance of Islamic New Year (TBC).

23 July (Sunday): Revolution Day.

27 July (Thursday): National holiday in observance of Revolution Day.

Late July-14 August: 2Q2023 earnings season.

SEPTEMBER 2023

26 September (Tuesday): Prophet Muhammad’s birthday (TBC).

28 September (Thursday): National holiday in observance of Prophet Muhammad’s birthday (TBC).

OCTOBER 2023

6 October (Friday): Armed Forces Day.

Late October-14 November: 3Q2023 earnings season.

EVENTS WITH NO SET DATE

2H 2022: The inauguration of the Grand Egyptian Museum.

2H 2022: IEF-IGU Ministerial Gas Forum, Egypt. Date + location TBA.

2H 2022: The government will have vaccinated 70% of the population.

3Q 2022: Ayady’s consumer financing arm, The Egyptian Company for Consumer Finance Services, to release its first financing product.

3Q 2022: Swvl to close acquisition of Urbvan Mobility.

End of December/early January: SFE’s pre-IPO fund to kick off roadshow.

4Q 2022: Electricity Ministry to tender six solar projects in Aswan Governorate.

4Q 2022: Raya Holding subsidiary Aman and Qalaa Holdings’ Taqa Arabia to launch their fintech company.

4Q 2022: Saudi Arabia’s Jamjoom Pharma to inaugurate its EGP 1 bn pharma factory in El Obour.

End of 2022: Decent Life first phase scheduled for completion.

End of 2022: e-Aswaaq’s tourism platform will complete the roll out of its ticketing and online booking portal across Egypt.

2023: Egypt will host the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank’s Annual Meeting of the Board of Governors in 2023.

1Q 2023: Adnoc Distribution’s acquisition of 50% of TotalEnergies Egypt to close.

1Q 2023: Internal trade database to launch.

Enterprise is a daily publication of Enterprise Ventures LLC, an Egyptian limited liability company (commercial register 83594), and a subsidiary of Inktank Communications. Summaries are intended for guidance only and are provided on an as-is basis; kindly refer to the source article in its original language prior to undertaking any action. Neither Enterprise Ventures nor its staff assume any responsibility or liability for the accuracy of the information contained in this publication, whether in the form of summaries or analysis. © 2022 Enterprise Ventures LLC.

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